SociologicalYOU (Fifth Edition)
SociologicalYOU is a comprehensive, digitally delivered learning system for Introductory Sociology classes. This NextGen textbook provides an unparalleled collection of resources for both students and instructors. SY encourages student engagement and learning retention through the latest in proven learning theory and interactive features, including gamification, Focus Mode, and a note-taking system. SY even incorporates the Science of Learning, Achievement, and Happiness because we believe the first step in becoming a better student is becoming a better learner!
SY is easy to adopt and fits any teaching style for both in-person and online courses.
SociologicalYOU is a peer-reviewed, innovative, digital textbook and comprehensive SYSTEM that utilizes a “read a little, do a little” pedagogical approach coupled with a unique chapter completion certificate. The certificates solve the problem of students coming to class not having read the chapter. The digital certificates are downloadable and are provided when students earn a 90% or better on the low-stakes assessment questions integrated into the chapter content.
This NextGen textbook provides an unparalleled collection of resources for both students and instructors and incorporates the latest in proven learning theory to provide an engaging learning experience unlike any textbook currently on the market. It is easy to adopt and fits any teaching style for both in-person and online courses. The unparalleled and dedicated support staff makes adopting and using SY a simple process that supports our motto: K.I.S.S. – “Keep It Simple Sociologists!”
SY encourages student engagement and learning retention through the latest in proven learning theory and interactive features, including gamification, Focus Mode, and a note-taking system. SY even incorporates the Science of Learning, Achievement, and Happiness because not only do we believe that it is important to teach students how to be better sociologists, we also believe it is important to teach students how to be better individuals and members of society!
Why Choose the SY SYSTEM?
SY is more than a textbook. It is a SYSTEM designed to provide solutions for many of the most common problems that instructors encounter teaching Introductory Sociology. The SY co-authors have nearly 50 years of combined teaching experience and developed the SY SYSTEM to address core issues that hinder instructor and student performance. The uniqueness and key to SY is that we began with the problems in mind and then developed the textbook and system to resolve the issues to optimize your success within your courses.
We encourage you to compare your current textbook with SY and determine if it addresses all of these problems. If not, is it time to say “YES” to YOU?
On average, two-thirds of students don’t read the assigned textbook chapters and are unprepared for discussion and engagement.
The proprietary SY Chapter Completion Certificates demonstrate students have completed the reading and low-stakes assessment and earned a certificate with their name, date, and score to be uploaded to your learning management system prior to the class session. Over 90% of students using SY complete the readings and submit the chapter completion certificates when the certificates are weighted at 10% of the overall course grade.
“Several studies from across college disciplines indicate that one should expect that less than one-third of one’s students have completed the assigned reading before coming to class (Burchfield and Sappington, 2000; Sappington et al., 2002; Clump et al., 2004; Connor-Greene, 2016)” (Cressman 2018).
Digital native students are conditioned to read by incorporating fast processing, skimming and word-spotting, filtering voluminous information, and multi-tasking. As a result, deep reading of textbooks is difficult, laborious, and often interrupted by distractions.
SY breaks down the content into bite-size modules and utilizes a “read a little, do a little” pedagogical approach. A unique FOCUS MODE eliminates screen distractions and encourages deep reading. The gamification injects excitement and fun into the reading and teaches students how to read a digital textbook successfully.
Standard textbooks just deliver content but do not provide opportunities to improve your teaching evaluations.
The SY SYSTEM generates excitement and a buzz about the course and engages students in unprecedented ways. Feedback from students indicates they are more engaged in and excited about SY than any other textbook. This means you will experience an increase in your students’ engagement, interest, and appreciation – all of which is depicted on your teaching evaluations.
Many textbooks approach instructor resources as an afterthought and do not offer comprehensive and quality instructor resources.
The SY co-authors write the instructor resources and have been committed from the inception of the textbook that they will offer the MOST and highest quality of resources of any introductory sociology textbook on the market. The resources are integrated into the instructor’s copy of the textbook for instant access and ease of use.
Student learning styles do not match the traditional lecture format well, and instructors are not provided publisher resources to flip their course in order to connect with students.
SY is the first textbook to provide all of the content and resources for you to semi flip your course. Co-author Thompson provides 15 PowerPoint audio lectures and 15 detailed lesson plans with specific activities and resources to engage students in active learning – their learning style preference!
Many students are academically unprepared and face personal challenges and obstacles that thwart their success in the course.
SY is the first textbook that teaches students the science of learning using gamification to help students utilize the best techniques for learning, such as retrieval practice, elaboration, spaced retrieval, interleaving, and calibration. Students learn the techniques via short animated videos, which are then reinforced with activities throughout the textbook. SY offers constant encouragement and best practices to help them succeed in the course and their personal life.
The majority of textbooks are (let’s just say it) BORING, and it is expected that students should just trudge through the content and accept the unpleasant experience.
SY brings excitement and fun through gamification, which improves learning for Gen Z and Millennials. Students earn points and badges to earn bonus content such as a study guide with answers, an animated chapter summary video, and a full-length practice exam. The characters, SYlvia and SYlvester, guide them through the textbook and offer insight and encouragement to boost their success in the course and life.
Here is how a student describes SY.
“I really enjoy how this textbook feels like I’m reading a story or that someone is talking to me through it.” Roland – Summer 2021
Student Goal: “Connecting Sociology and YOU”
Instructor Goal: “K.I.S.S” – “Keep It Simple Sociologists”
- Gamification System: This feature is GAME CHANGER. SYlvia and SYlvester, two animated characters referred to as the SYlvettes, have joined SY! The SYlvettes introduce and apply content to personal situations and encourage students to engage in sociological reflection and critical discussion. The SYlvettes give students the opportunity to earn badges and points by offering voluntary ACTION items in each chapter. Each ACTION item reinforces the science of Learning, Achievement, and Happiness, course content, and utilization of SY resources and features. As students accumulate points, they unlock bonus study material: 150 points unlocks the chapter’s Study Guide with Answers, 250 points unlocks the Chapter Summary animated video, and 350 points unlocks the chapter’s full-length Practice Exam.
- Focus Mode: This feature removes the main navigation, footer elements, and sidebars from the page, so students will be able to fully focus on engaging with the chapter content. Focus Mode aims to eliminate distractions and streamline the students’ learning experience – increasing learning retention and completion rates.
- Student Note-Taking System: Research shows that highlighting is one of the least effective study strategies, while taking notes is one of the most effective strategies to learn and retain information. The note-taking system allows students to take notes as they read, save notes in each Learning Objective, and download notes into Word Documents as they prepare for an exam.
- “A Better YOU” Videos: The textbook has 15 short, animated videos within the gamification system to introduce students to the science behind Learning, Achievement, and Happiness. This content is included to help students succeed in this course as well as in other courses. To a large degree, socialization dictates how we study, our ideas about how to achieve goals, and what makes us happy and healthy. Students will learn what science says about each of these topics so they can apply them and make informed decisions to reach their academic, professional, and personal goals.
- COVID-19 Supplementary Content: Approximately 75 pages of bonus content for students to apply the current pandemic to the terms in the chapters. Students click on the (C-19) link associated with the term, and a paragraph presents how the term is related. The Pandemic and YOU section asks questions for the student to consider for personal application.
- UPDATED Annually! The co-authors have committed to updating SociologicalYOU each summer, so the most up-to-date content is available for students and instructors.
- Read a Little Do A Little Pedagogy: The textbook is designed based on Make It Stick: The Science of Learning. Students read the content within each learning objective and then answer 3 or 4 questions. This is a proven method to learn and retain the content. Student feedback is, “This is the first textbook that I have enjoyed reading!”
- Text to Voice Audio: Students requested this during the 4th week of the spring 2021 semester and the SY Team implemented it by the 8th week. This is an example of the adaptability of a digital textbook. Students love that they can be exercising on a treadmill and listen to the textbook being read aloud.
- Chapter Completion Certificates: This is one of the most innovative and unique features of SY. Students answer the questions in the chapter and must score 100% to earn the digital certificate. Don’t worry. The assessment is low-stakes, as the students can answer the questions as many times as needed, which improves retention. The certificate includes the student’s name and score so it can be uploaded prior to the first lecture over the chapter. Voila! Students come to class having read the chapter and prepared for discussions. It is a game-changer!
- SY Blog: This weekly blog applies terms to current events to achieve the goal of “Connecting Sociology and YOU!” Each blog has numerous links to news articles to reinforce how sociology is “In the News” The blog is also made available to the public so that all sociology instructors and students can benefit from the SY blog.
- NEW! SY Flipped PowerPoint Audio Lectures and Lesson Plans: Dr. Thompson provides audio lectures using customized PowerPoints allowing instructors to flip their classroom to free up time to do active learning in the classroom. A detailed lesson plan is provided for in-class activities with specific resources included.
- Health Professions Content: Each chapter has 15 terms applied to the health professions fields for students focusing on nursing, pre-med, dentistry, physician assistant, kinesiology, physical therapy, speech pathology, and other areas. Students click on the (HP) link associated with the term, and a paragraph presents how the term is related to the health professions fields. The Diagnosis section provides questions for students to consider regarding their future careers.
- Supplementary Readings (Instructor Resource): Each chapter has 5 or more Creative Commons supplementary readings that can be provided to students. Many of the readings are classics commonly included in readers.
- UPDATED! PowerPoints: The PowerPoints have been updated to meet accessibility standards. Our textbook’s most recent Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) was updated on August 7, 2020.
- Student surveys are integrated into every chapter to measure understanding and satisfaction of the content and process to provide real time feedback.
- Built-in Quizlets (Student Resource): This is one of the most popular features for students as it saves time and is an excellent study tool. All of the SY terms are fully integrated within Quizlets for each chapter, and students simply click on the link.
- Study Guides and Practice Quizzes (Student Resources): These study resources are built into each chapter providing opportunities for practice retrieval. Numerous student resources are included in the textbook, and student feedback consistently indicates this is one of the key features enjoyed by students.
- Purchasing – Access Codes: Students can purchase an access code at the college or university bookstore or purchase access to the textbook directly from the SY home page.
- Technical Support: We pride ourselves on providing nearly 24/7 assistance to instructors and students. During the first two weeks, we provide 24/7 support and then transition to responding within 2 hours during normal operating hours, including weekends. The SY Support Team often will respond to a support ticket at 3:00 a.m. because our team is located in the U.S., Europe, and South Asia.
- Student Learning Tips (Student Resource): Our goal is to help students relearn how to study based on the science of learning, and Chapter 1 provides Keys to Success. The following are four key evidence-based recommended strategies with included videos to dig deeper into the strategies.
Table of Contents
SociologicalYOU: Table of Contents
- Chapter 1: Introduction – Understanding Sociology
- Chapter 2: Sociological Inquiry – For Inquisitive Minds
- Chapter 3: Culture – Defined by Everyday Reality
- Chapter 4: Socialization – Are We Merely Byproducts of Society
- Chapter 5: Social Interaction – All the World is a Stage
- Chapter 6: Groups and Organizations – From Dyads to Myriads
- Chapter 7: Crime and Deviance – Abnormal Sociology
- Chapter 8: Social Stratification – The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Poorer
- Chapter 9: Sex and Gender – Society’s New Directions
- Chapter 10: Race and Ethnicity – Privileges and Prejudices
- Chapter 11: Economics and Politics – Money and Power
- Chapter 12: Religion and Education – An Educated Belief System
- Chapter 13: Marriage and Family – Changing Times
- Chapter 14: Health, Illness, and Medicine – Society’s Magic Pill
- Chapter 15: Social Changes and Social Movements – A Changing World
Each chapter of SociologicalYOU is divided into five modules organized around specific sociological insights.
- Sociological Perspective: the process of understanding and explaining how individuals and groups interact within society.
- Social Structures: the distinctive and stable arrangements of social patterns that form the society as a whole.
- Social Problems: the societal-level conditions that harm segments of society.
- Sociological Imagination: the ability to see the details of our own lives in the context of larger social structures as opposed to merely personal choices or personal troubles.
- Social Change: the social forces that change the organization and social structures of society.
Chapter 1: Outline
Chapter 1: Introduction – Understanding Sociology
Understanding Your Social World
Sociology: In the Beginning
Sociological Theory: The Basics
Sociological Theory: Relevant Today
Weber: A Different Perspective
Contemporary Theories: New Approaches
1.1.1: Compare Comte’s means of studying society with the methods of studying natural science
1.1.2: Compare and contrast the three sociological theories or views of society.
1.1.3: Apply the three main sociological theories to a contemporary social issue.
1.1.4: Define verstehen and compare and contrast how Weber’s perspective differs from the three main sociological theories.
1.1.5: Summarize the feminist, queer, and postmodern theories.
Social Structures: The Basics
Unfolding Characteristics of Social Structures
Practicing Sociologists during Times of Change
Social Structures: Real Life Applications
1.2.1: Explain the characteristics of social structures.
1.2.2: Describe how Martineau, Addams, Du Bois, and Merton recognized social structures in their research, writings, or practice of sociology.
1.2.3: Identify social structures within a contemporary social issue.
Social Structures: Real Life Applications
The Human Side of Our Sweet Addiction
Social Inequality: Poor Families Aren’t Allowed a Dad
1.3.1: Identify the role of sociology in understanding social problems.
1.3.2: Describe the social problems associated with social inequality.
A Greek Tragedy: The Link between Personal Troubles and Public Issues
United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Importance of Social Bonds
Suicide in Greek Society
1.4.1: Explain the relationship between the sociological imagination and Durkheim’s anomie.
1.4.2: Apply the sociological imagination to Durkheim’s research on suicide.
Social Change and Globalization through the Lens of Sociology
It’s a Small World After All.
Sociology on the Job
1.5.1: Evaluate the consequence of globalization in the context of social change.
1.5.2: Explain how sociology can be applied to social change.
Request Review copy
The best way to understand our innovative and unique textbook is to hear from the students who have used it. The below unedited survey was conducted in 2020 and reflects student feedback about SociologicalYOU.
IMPORTANT NOTE: This survey was administered PRIOR to SY being gamified and therefore does not reflect feedback about the badges and points to earn bonus content nor the animated videos pertaining to the science of learning, achievement, and success.
Q: What do you specifically like about the digital textbook, SociologicalYOU?
- I like how you can pre-test to see where you are.
- I greatly enjoy this textbook because it is online, so no need to carry a heavy book everywhere. I also like how easy to use it is. Every keyword is highlighted so you know it is important, plus following the keyword is the exact definition needed.
- Don’t have to carry it to class.
- The interactive aspect of the whole program and the post section quizzes.
- It has ways to help you study and offers up things I would make for tests (ex: quizlet).
- I like the digital textbook because it is very easy to navigate, and the material is straightforward.
- I like that you offer already made quizlets.
- There is a huge convenience factor on having our textbook located on your computer, as you can access it anywhere without the need to carry around a heavy textbook with you. I also think that is it a very user-friendly site which makes me want to use the textbook as a resource, rather than textbooks in my other classes.
- I like the chapter layout. It is organized, consistent, and place of resources.
- I appreciate that SociologicalYou has questions integrated throughout the chapters to help recall/retain the information I just read.
- I like the fact that it highlights all the important terms, summarizes every topic and sub topic, provides an already made Quizlet and key terms and also uses contemporary examples in every topic.
- I like how interactive it is and how it quizzes you right after you have finished reading to ensure you understood the material. I can use it anywhere without having to drag a bulky textbook around!
- I like that is provides multiple methods of practicing retrieval. It’s great that we are able to quiz ourselves. It is easy to navigate.
- I like the resources such as the expanded key terms, the quizlet, and practice quizzes.
- I like that it is relatable and more brief than others.
- The quizzes are spaced thoughtfully which helps me learn and catch myself if I start to skim.
- I like how well organized it is.
- How it explains deeply and has great examples. The textbook provides you with many ways to really excel I like how there are a few questions after each section of reading that can help you gage if you are retaining information I enjoyed the immediate quizzes.
- It focused the reading down to key points and allowed for more attentive studying the end quizzes The questions after every mini chapter really help test my knowledge on what I just read. I really like the interactiveness of the textbook as the quiz questions in each chapter help me learn the material better.
- The chapters are not too long and they are interesting.
- I like how it is easy to use I like how it is easy to read and understand. This textbook uses recent topics to describe and help you remember vocabulary.
- I like the quizzes at the end of each section, to help me study what I just read. The extra sources for study at the bottom of the chapters. The resources at the bottom of each chapter are especially helpful for studying to narrow my focus.
- I love how this textbook provides games and quizlets to help students study. I think this is a very innovative and modern way to teach. I personally get distracted very easily so when I do things like games it keeps me active and concentrated.
- It’s very accessible and easy to find the section/term you are looking for. It gives great definitions on each vocabulary word and the website is easy to access at any time.
- Post Assessments really help you understand your own knowledge of the information I love how it is easily structured and provides TONS of built in tools like vocab flash cards, practice questions, etc.
Q: How is SociologicalYou different than other textbooks you have used in other courses?
- It’s helps you prepare a different way. Instead of reading the whole chapter and then quizzing a student, this textbook breaks it into manageable parts and then quizzes the student over that small part. well-organized.
- It is very interactive and provides us with outside resources which truly help. Its easy access, study tools, personal experiences, and modern examples.
- This textbook is different from other textbooks because it has many readily accessible practice materials to study. It has multiple resources I think that it is easier to use, and I have more of a desire to use it as a resource because of the convenience. I also feel like there are many relevant examples provided throughout the textbook that relate to our everyday, modern world.
- It is very applicable to real life. The textbook gives you many resources to help study.
- It is designed with students in mind. It is much more interactive and the way the chapters are written hold my attention better than in other courses.
- It is very detailed and uses present and current examples which makes it more relatable.
- It is very easy to use and is helps a lot more with study techniques. It is set up to help you succeed and it is more interactive than a normal textbook.
- It has so many other resources than just the text like study guides, practice tests, Quizlets and important key terms.
- It’s different because it gives you questions after reading a certain amount of a module. It has a lot of helpful study tools that others don’t.
- The module topics are the same for each chapter and it has a lot of extra resources. It actually uses real world examples and problems that are interesting to us versus boring outdated articles that are not relevant and some are not even accurate anymore.
- Its very well organized and user friendly Its more engaging.
- It is written from an actual persons perspective and stays up to date on current events.
- I feel like SociologyYou is more interactive and because the section is split up it does not seem like that much reading.
- It contains multiple different resources for students to learn, practice, and study. They are more interactive and helpful It is more engaging and has real world examples that are current and that I have seen before in real life.
- SociologicalYou is different than other textbooks as it has quiz questions in each section of each chapter. Personally, this helps me learn the material better as it forces me to pay attention to the content I am reading.
- It is more interactive.
- Has study tools attached to each chapter.
- This textbook is different because it forces you to recall what you just read. This is very helpful and makes you read and pay attention. It has several subsections in each section, which emphasizes different facets of sociology.
- How it is online as well as the extra sources to help studying. It is a lot more interactive than a textbook that you simply read, take notes, and close. With SociologicalYou, you go back and utilize the resources embedded in each chapter to advance your knowledge of a subject.
- This textbook is very refreshing because it is focused in helping students succeed in this course. It provides many ways of learning the concepts and example like Quizlets and games.
- It is very interactive and helps the students not get bored or tired of reading.
- It comes with built in study tips and tools that help you format your studying and make sure you are studying all the right information. You are able to study using Quizlet and has all of the chapters at your access It is easy to learn to use and again provides many integrated tools to help students learn
Q: How does SociologicalYou help you succeed in the course?
- When I study the chapters, I can go to post-assessment and take pre-tests.
- It prepares the student very well for the test because it covers all of the material.
- Pre-made quizlets.
- Sociologicalyou help me be successful on the course through the process of taking post lecture quizzes along with providing a Quizlet that make sure that I retain all the information specifically highlighting vocabulary and giving us study tools that are useful for the test.
- The SociologicalYou textbook helps me succeed in this course since we have to submit chapter certificates that require a review for each section. It helps me retain the information I just read. It provides study guides.
- There are so many resources available on SociologicalYou. Between study resources, the interactive questions throughout the chapters, Quizlets, etc.
- Many ways to study. I use the study resources the most. Having the quizlets available with each chapter has helped me practice and study the info for the exams. It also makes me feel confident that the information I am studying is accurate.
- It is very understandable and it summarizes all the important things you need to know for the exam and the topic as well.
- The quizzes right after the reading help to ensure I understand the material, the quiz lets and other study resources help me study, and the study tips help me strategize and prepare for the tests and other activities in class.
- It makes me be more engaged in my learning because you have to pass the checklists and also its so interactive so it makes me study in different ways.
- I think it helps me succeed in this course by having a number of ways of studying including flashcards and practice tests. It gives me access to tools that make it easier to study and prepare for exams the extra resources. The quizzes help a lot, even though I don’t like to admit it. If I skim the reading, I cannot answer the questions and I am not the student to guess until I am right.
- The questions help with understanding the passages you’ve just read. The questions helped in exams The multiple practice quizzes and quizlets.
- The study guides at the end are very helpful It has taken real world issues into a text that translates to the course but also the real world. it makes me actually learn the material.
- It allows me to work at my own speed and go back when I need to refresh my memory.
- SociologicalYou helps me succeed in the course because it provides many resources at the end of each chapter, such as lists of key terms, quizlets, and many more. It allows you to correct your answer if you miss it.
- Helps me find different ways to study Honestly, still trying to figure this one out… I study the material and read through it twice but not seeing the best test grades. But besides that it has opened my perspective to the world i live in.
- The quiz questions at the end of each chapter help me remember the definitions I just learned I am able to take pre assessments as many times as I need to. It helps show where I am strong and where I am weak on a subject.
- I took a sociology class with a plain textbook and did not succeed. In this class, the book is the key to my success because all of the information is explained well and easy to follow. This medium is an innovative way of learning. I love how everything is divided in parts and has questions in between them. It keeps me concentrated in the text and makes me want to keep going until I get more questions done.
- Its study tips and tools make it easy to study and its real world examples also help me to truly understand the topic we’re discussing It has quizlets, tests, and is a perfect way to study. It is structured so simply and you can see what is important and dive deeper into certain parts of need be.
Q: If you had one sentence to convey to a professor about SociologicalYOU, what would you say?
- It’s a very useful website.
- This textbook is an all encompassing, easy to use, essential classroom tool.
- It’s a well-organized way to learn Sociological you as a perfect resource for sociology it has helped me gain a better understanding of what sociology is.
- SociologicalYou is an interactive textbook that, though it can be quite long, offers study tools and detailed learning for students.
- SociologicalYou is a great textbook that is straightforward and gives you insightful information about our society. It’s the easiest to understand.
- It is a must have!
- It makes the students lives so much easier, and gives them a desire to use the textbook as a resource due to the plethora of study tools and overall convenience.
- I think the book is a good way of learning the material. I am impressed with the layout. I also appreciate its straightforwardness.
- SociologicalYou is a very engaging textbook that helps students retain information by presenting it in multiple formats and providing various study tools as well.
- This is a great book and I am impressed by the use of current examples. The only thing I would say it to cut short some of the topics because some of the information are irrelevant and repetitive but apart from that I think it is a great book and I am always excited to read it.
- It is an interactive textbook designed to help the student understand the material so they can succeed.
- It is so much better than a normal textbook because of the ample amount of resources and the convenience of having it on your computer.
- I really like this textbook because I am able to read and complete assignments on one textbook source.
- It is very useful in allowing students to learn the material.
- It’s very helpful in clearly teaching me the information in a way that is easy to understand and all the definitions are related to real life examples.
- It is hard to say you like a textbook, because it is a textbook for goodness sake. However, I enjoy the relatability and the addition of prevalent topics that relate to our society and also our majors.
- There are tons of health related excerpts for me to read about nursing if I chose to, and there are tons of excerpts about business and the government for a business major.
- Everyone can find something relatable to what they are actually here to study which is very nice. I wrote way more than one sentence!
We are a small publishing company headquartered in Texas consisting of 10 employees and 4 nationalities spread out around the world dedicated to offering the most innovative digital textbook on the market. In some ways, we are similar to the craft brewery that has decided to not follow the traditional recipes and offers new and innovative beers. We did not create a traditional textbook as SY was designed from the beginning to be used online as well as in the classroom with a variety of unique features. We publish one textbook, SociologicalYOU, so we put all of our time and resources into making it the best on the market.
We invite you to “taste test” SociologicalYOU by requesting a review copy.
Our company motto is “K.I.S.S.,” which stands for Keep It Simple Sociologists. Every decision we make is designed to keep the process simple for instructors in order for the adoption process to be quick and easy and the textbook simple to use. The digital textbook has a lot of bells and whistles, but they are all integrated and are seamless so instructors can just focus on what they do best – TEACHING!
Students can purchase SY directly online at www.SociologicalYOU.com for $60.00. We provide access codes to college and university bookstores, which incurs a markup to the base cost.